In modern production processes the accuracy of fit for components is crucial for the efficiency of a machine. The more exactly two gearwheels in a transmission match each other, the lower the wear, energy input and vibration will be. Producing components with a large tolerance and still combining them with each other at a later stage to achieve a perfect fit – a new inline measurement system by Fraunhofer IPM now makes this possible. In one example the inspection system measures the absolute geometry of gearwheels directly in the production line. This enables the exact dimensions of each individual gearwheel to be recorded at the time of manufacture – if necessary, with an accuracy extending into the nanometer range. Data recorded includes pitch errors, tip and root diameters or also the flank line.