Frequency combs

Frequency comb spectroscopy, in particular dual-comb spectroscopy, is a novel technique that is suitable for fast, precise and broadband measurements on a large number of absorbers. For example, it is possible to determine the concentration of several gases in less than 1 millisecond using one single measurement. Dual-comb spectroscopy provides great flexibility for the best compromise between measurement speed, measurement accuracy and the number of substances to be measured. At Fraunhofer IPM it is our goal to make this technology easily accessible and usable for process measurement technology. Therefore, our research within the COSPA project focuses on frequency comb generation, frequency conversion and parallel, fast measurement of several gas components in one sample. In particular, we focus on maximum flexibility for the measurement of gases in the mid-infrared range, since gas molecules in this wavelength range exhibit strong and characteristic spectral lines.

Frequency combs: Optical rulers

A frequency comb (FC) is a laser light source that emits light using a large number of adjacent spectral lines with equal and well-defined frequency spacing. Hence, the name frequency comb. A frequency comb is used to measure the frequency of electromagnetic radiation very precisely, so that it is also referred to as an »optical ruler«. The development of frequency combs began more than 20 years ago and is considered groundbreaking. Its leading inventors, Prof. Theodor Hänsch of the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Physics and his US colleague John Hall, received the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on optical frequency comb generators.

Dual comb systems: multi-heterodyne spectrometers

The use of two frequency combs allows for a multi-heterodyne measurement procedure in which one comb is superimposed with a second one. If the spectral lines of one comb are offset from the spectral lines of the other, a beat or periodic change in intensity occurs, which can be evaluated in a similar way to Fourier transform spectroscopy. As a result, a single photodetector takes the place of a classical spectrometer. This is a further advantage for gas spectroscopy, since the measurement method avoids the limitations of classical spectrometers and permits a freely selectable frequency resolution in the range of a few hundred MHz. In comparison, typical widths of gas absorptions under atmospheric conditions lie in the single-digit GHz range.

Research focus: Production of dual combs

The construction of a single frequency comb is complex because it requires many highly controllable components. These control requirements become more demanding for the dual comb technique due to the additional need to synchronize the two single combs. Frequency combs that can be derived from a common source are of particular interest for applications outside the laboratory, since synchronization is considerably simplified here. Against this background, we generate two frequency combs via electro-optical modulation from a single continuous wave laser and spectrally widen them in a further step via nonlinear effects in a fiber.

Research focus: Conversion to mid-infrared

Frequency combs suitable for gas spectroscopy are typically generated in the near infrared and can therefore only be applied to gases with absorptions in this spectral range. Based on the current state of technology, it is therefore unavoidable to convert these frequency combs into the desired spectral range using non-linear processes such as difference frequency generation. In spectroscopy, the mid-infrared region is of particular importance because many molecules have characteristic spectral lines in this spectral range. Drawing on many years of experience in the generation of tunable laser sources and the nonlinear conversion of various light sources, we are developing a conversion module for the MIR range that is capable of converting a single or two superimposed frequency combs into any desired spectral range from 3 µm to 5 µm.

Research focus: Multi-component analysis

The high frequency resolution and the large spectral range which can be covered in one single measurement are promising when it comes to separating the absorption of different sample components and performing an isolated concentration determination. Therefore, we investigate the possibilities of simultaneously measuring the concentration of several gases whose characteristic spectral lines overlap, and of determining different gases which absorb in different spectral ranges, by temporally separated measurement.

 

Publications »Frequency combs«

Jahr
Year
Titel/Autor:in
Title/Author
Publikationstyp
Publication Type
2024 Generation of mid-infrared microresonator frequency combs based on parametric down-conversion
Amiune, Nicolás
Dissertation
Doctoral Thesis
2023 Doppel-Frequenzkamm-Spektrometer für die Spurengasdetektion
Nitzsche, Leonard
Dissertation
Doctoral Thesis
2023 Mid-infrared frequency combs and staggered spectral patterns in χ(2) microresonators
Amiune, Nicolás; Fan, Zhiwei; Pankratov, Vladislav V.; Puzyrev, Danila N.; Skryabin, Dmitry V.; Zawilski, Kevin; Schunemann, Peter G.; Breunig, Ingo
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2023 Pump Tuning of a Microresonator Mid-Infrared χ(2) OPO and Microcomb Generation at 3.1 μm with CdSiP2
Amiune, Nicolas; Zawilski, Kevin; Schunemann, Peter; Kordts, Arne; Holzwarth, Ronald; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 Rapid Quantitative Analysis of IR Absorption Spectra for Trace Gas Detection by Artificial Neural Networks Trained with Synthetic Data
Goldschmidt, Jens; Nitzsche, Leonard; Wolf, Sebastian; Lambrecht, Armin; Wöllenstein, Jürgen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Dual backgrounds and their stability during frequency comb and second harmonic generation in CH(2) microresonators
Sturman, Boris; Podivilov, Evgeniy; Szabados, Jan; Breunig, Ingo
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 CH(2) frequency comb generation based on optical parametric oscillation in a lithium niobate microresonator
Amiune, Nicolás; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 Frequenzkammerzeugung mittels Frequenzverdopplung in Lithiumniobat-Flüstergalerieresonatoren
Szabados, Jan
Dissertation
Doctoral Thesis
2022 Two-component gas sensing with MIR dual comb spectroscopy: Fast and precise monitoring of concentrations despite complex spectra
Nitzsche, Leonard; Goldschmidt, Jens; Lambrecht, Armin; Wöllenstein, Jürgen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Advances in Pockels-effect-based adiabatic frequency conversion in lithium niobate high-Q optical microresonators
Minet, Yannick; Basler, Michael; Zappe, Hans; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2021 Fine structure of second-harmonic resonances in CH(2) optical microresonators
Szabados, Jan; Amiune, Nicolás; Sturman, Boris; Breunig, Ingo
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Electro-Optic Control of Lithium Niobate Bulk Whispering Gallery Resonators: Analysis of the Distribution of Externally Applied Electric Fields
Minet, Yannick; Zappe, Hans; Breunig, Ingo; Buse, Karsten
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Soliton based CH(2) combs in high-Q optical microresonators
Smirnov, Sergey; Andryushkov, Valeriy; Podivilov, Evgeniy; Sturman, Boris; Breunig, Ingo
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Tunable dual-comb spectrometer for mid-infrared trace gas analysis from 3 to 4.7 µm
Nitzsche, Leonard; Goldschmidt, Jens; Kießling, Jens; Wolf, Sebastian; Kühnemann, Frank; Wöllenstein, Jürgen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 From optical parametric oscillation to frequency-comb generation in whispering gallery resonators made of CdSiP2
Amiune, Nicolas; Zawilski, Kevin T.; Schunemann, Peter G.; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2021 Frequency comb generation based on optical parametric oscillation with second-order nonlinear materials
Amiune, Nicolás; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2021 A dual-comb spectrometer for trace gas analysis in the mid-infrared
Nitzsche, Leonard; Goldschmidt, Jens; Kießling, Jens; Wolf, Sebastian; Kühnemann, Frank; Wöllenstein, Jürgen
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2021 Optical-parametric-oscillation-based CH(2) frequency comb in a lithium niobate microresonator
Amiune, Nicolás; Puzyrev, Danila N.; Pankratov, Vladislav V.; Skryabin, Dmitry V.; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Real-Time Data Processing for an Electro-Optic Dual-Comb Spectrometer
Nitzsche, Leonard; Goldschmidt, Jens; Kießling, Jens; Wolf, Sebastian; Kühnemann, Frank; Wöllenstein, Jürgen
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2021 Low-threshold frequency comb generation using second-order nonlinearities in lithium niobate whispering gallery resonators
Szabados, Jan; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Nonlinear solutions for CH(2) frequency combs in optical microresonators
Podivilov, Evgeniy; Smirnov, Sergey; Breunig, Ingo; Sturman, Boris
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Frequency Comb Generation via Cascaded Second-Order Nonlinearities in Microresonators
Szabados, Jan; Puzyrev, Danila N.; Minet, Yannick; Reis, Luis; Buse, Karsten; Villois, Alberto; Skryabin, Dmitry V.; Breunig, Ingo
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Electro-optic eigenfrequency tuning of potassium tantalate-niobate microresonators
Szabados, Jan; Werner, Christoph S.; Herr, Simon J.; Breunig, Ingo; Buse, Karsten
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 A Dual Frequency Comb spectrometer suited for open-path greenhouse (GHG) and trace gas detection
Nitzsche, Leonard; Goldschmidt, Jens; Kießling, Jens; Wolf, Sebastian; Kühnemann, Frank; Wöllenstein, Jürgen
Poster
2020 Juggling with light: Powerful second-order nonlinear optical effects in whispering gallery resonators
Breunig, Ingo; Buse, Karsten
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Walk-off controlled self-starting frequency combs in CH(2) optical microresonators
Smirnov, Sergey; Sturman, Boris; Podivilov, Evgeniy; Breunig, Ingo
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Frequency comb generation threshold via second-harmonic excitation in CH(2) optical microresonators
Szabados, Jan; Sturman, Boris; Breunig, Ingo
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Frequency comb generation in non-centrosymmetric optical microresonators
Szabados, Jan; Breunig, Ingo; Buse, Karsten
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Frequency comb solutions for driven X(2) optical microresonators
Podivilov, Evgeniy; Sturman, Boris; Breunig, Ingo
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2019 Frequency combs in a microring optical parametric oscillator
Villois, Alberto; Kondratiev, Nikita M.; Breunig, Ingo; Puzyrev, Danila N.; Skryabin, Dmitry V.
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2019 Femtosecond-Driven Up-Conversion in a Radially Poled LiNbO3 Microresonator
Roiz, Mikhail; Werner, Christoph S.; Breunig, Ingo; Vaini, Markku
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 High repetition rate frequency comb up- and down-conversion in synchronously driven microresonators
Szabados, Jan; Brasch, Victor; Herr, Simon J.; Obrzud, Ewelina; Jia, Yuechen; Lecomte, Steve; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo; Herr, Tobias
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 Radially-Poled Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate Microresonators for Nonlinear-Optical Applications
Uluda, Macit; Szabados, Jan; Breunig, Ingo; Buse, Karsten
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 Adiabatic Frequency Conversion in Non-Centrosymmetric High-Q Optical Microresonators
Minet, Yannick; Reis, Luis; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2019 Frequency Comb Generation and Conversion in Non-Centrosymmetric Optical Microresonators
Szabados, Jan; Breunig, Ingo; Buse, Karsten
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Electro-optic tuning of potassium tantalate-niobate whispering gallery resonators
Szabados, Jan; Kini Manjeshwar, Sushanth; Breunig, Ingo; Buse, Karsten
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2018 Frequency comb up- and down-conversion in synchronously driven CH(2) optical microresonators
Herr, Simon J.; Brasch, Victor; Szabados, Jan; Obrzud, Ewelina; Jia, Yuechen; Lecomte, Steve; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo; Herr, Tobias
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
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