Caloric systems

We research caloric technologies for efficient and climate-friendly cooling systems that do not require harmful refrigerants. In future, caloric heat pumps could be an alternative to compressor technology. A novel, patented system concept for heat transfer makes it possible to construct highly energy- and cost-efficient caloric heat pumps.

Heat pumps play a crucial role in energy transition. The heat pumps currently available on the market almost exclusively use compressor technology. They require refrigerants for their operation, but these are often harmful to health and/or environment, and they are relatively inefficient. Fraunhofer IPM develops efficient caloric heat pumps and cooling systems as an alternative to compressor technology. The central innovation is our novel concept for heat transfer that promises high energy and cost efficiency. In the development of caloric systems, we rely on the following caloric technologies:

Magnetocalorics

Magnetocaloric materials are magnetisable materials that heat up in a magnetic field and cool down again once the field is removed. This method is distinguished in particular by the high efficiency of the material.

Electrocalorics

The principle is the same as it is for magnetocalorics: By applying a field, heat is reversibly generated in the electrocaloric material. Unlike magnetocalorics, electrocalorics involves the use of an electric field.

Elastocalorics

Elastocaloric materials are known as »shape memory alloys« in other applications. The introduction of heat can lead to a change in shape with these alloys. The inverse effect can also be used: reversible heat can be generated by applying force to the material. A cooling system can be created using appropriate system integration in a completely analogous way to magnetocalorics or electrocalorics.

 

Magnetocaloric systems

Magnetocaloric materials are magnetizable materials that heat up in a magnetic field and cool down again once the field is removed. When used in caloric systems, they are distinguished by a high degree of efficiency.

 

Electrocaloric systems

Electrocaloric materials heat up when an electric field is applied and cool down once the field is removed. We use this effect, based on an alternating alignment of the electric dipole moments in the field, to build a cycle based on which cooling systems and heat pumps can be constructed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elastocaloric systems

The specific properties of shape memory alloys can be used for cooling or heat generation. When a mechanical force acts on the material, it can exchange latent heat with the environment. Using cyclical loading and unloading, a cycle can be established that can be used as a basis to set up cooling systems and heat pumps.

 

Publications »Caloric systems«

Jahr
Year
Titel/Autor:in
Title/Author
Publikationstyp
Publication Type
2022 Phenomenological model for first-order elastocaloric materials
Bachmann, Nora; Fitger, Andreas; Unmüßig, Sabrina; Bach, David; Schäfer-Welsen, Olaf; Koch, Thomas; Bartholome, Kilian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Long life elastocaloric regenerator operating under compression
Ianniciello, Lucia; Bartholome, Kilian; Fitger, Andreas; Engelbrecht, Kurt
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Enhancing Electrocaloric Heat Pump Performance by Over 99% Efficient Power Converters and Offset Fields
Mönch, Stefan; Reiner, Richard; Waltereit, Patrick; Molin, Christian; Gebhardt, Sylvia; Bach, David; Binninger, Roland; Bartholome, Kilian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 Elastokalorik: Entwicklung hocheffizienter Wärmepumpen ohne schädliche Kältemittel zum Heizen und Kühlen
Fitger, Andreas; Bartholome, Kilian; Bachmann, Nora; Unmüßig, Sabrina; Winkler, Markus; Mahlke, Andreas
Bericht
Report
2022 Modeling of an Elastocaloric Cooling System for Determining Efficiency
Bachmann, Nora; Schwarz, Daniel; Bach, David; Schäfer-Welsen, Olaf; Koch, Thomas; Bartholome, Kilian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2022 GaN Power Converter Applied to Electrocaloric Heat Pump Prototype and Carnot Cycle
Mönch, Stefan; Reiner, Richard; Mansour, Kareem; Basler, Michael; Waltereit, Patrick; Quay, Rüdiger; Bartholome, Kilian
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 A GaN-based DC-DC Converter with Zero Voltage Switching and Hysteretic Current Control for 99% Efficient Bidirectional Charging of Electrocaloric Capacitive Loads
Moench, Stefan; Mansour, Kareem; Reiner, Richard; Basler, Michael; Waltereit, Patrick; Quay, Rüdiger; Molin, Christian; Gebhardt, Sylvia; Bach, David; Binninger, Roland; Bartholome, Kilian
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2022 Concept of a Magnetocaloric Generator with Latent Heat Transfer for the Conversion of Heat into Electricity
Baliozian, Puzant; Corhan, Patrick; Hess, Tobias; Bartholome, Kilian; Wöllenstein, Jürgen
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Method for stabilizing and/or controlling and/or regulating the working temperature, heat exchanger unit, device for transporting energy, refrigerating machine and heat pump
Fitger, Andreas; Mahlke, Andreas; Bachmann, Nora; Corhan, Patrick; Maier, Lena Maria; Bartholomé, Kilian; Schäfer-Welsen, Olaf
Patent
2021 MagMed - Entwicklungen einer kältemittelfreien und effizienten Kühltechnik. Abschlussbericht
Kopitzke, Jochen; Niebuhr, Herbert; Müller, Gerhard; Wittig, Daniel; Bartholomé, Kilian; Maier, Lena Maria; Corhan, Patrick; Barzca, Alexander; Vieyra, Hugo; Katterer, Matthias; Vogel, Christian
Bericht
Report
2021 Long-term stable compressive elastocaloric cooling system with latent heat transfer
Bachmann, Nora; Fitger, Andreas; Maier, Lena Maria; Mahlke, Andreas; Schäfer-Welsen, Olaf; Koch, Thomas; Bartholome, Kilian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2021 Zur Steigerung der spezifischen Leistung eines magnetokalorischen Kühlsystems
Maier, Lena Maria
Dissertation
Doctoral Thesis
2020 Thermal hysteresis and its impact on the efficiency of first-order caloric materials
Hess, Tobias; Maier, Lena Maria; Bachmann, Nora; Corhan, Patrick; Schäfer-Welsen, Olaf; Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Bartholome, Kilian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Method to characterize a thermal diode in saturated steam atmosphere
Maier, Lena Maria; Hess, Tobias; Kaube, Alexandra; Corhan, Patrick; Fitger, Andreas; Bachmann, Nora; Schäfer-Welsen, Olaf; Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Bartholome, Kilian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Modellierung einer magnetokalorischen Wärmepumpe mit thermischen Dioden
Hess, Tobias
Dissertation
Doctoral Thesis
2020 Active magnetocaloric heat pipes provide enhanced specific power of caloric refrigeration
Maier, Lena Maria; Corhan, Patrick; Barcza, Alexander; Vieyra, Hugo; Vogel, Christian; König, Jan D.; Schäfer-Welsen, Olaf; Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Bartholome, Kilian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2020 Magnetokalorische Wärmepumpen mit hohen Zyklusfrequenzen
Maier, Lena Maria; Hess, Tobias; Corhan, Patrick; Schmiz, Sophie; Bachmann, Nora; Schäfer-Welsen, Olaf; Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Bartholome, Kilian
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2020 Phenomenological model for a first-order magnetocaloric material
Hess, Tobias; Vogel, Christian; Maier, Lena Maria; Barcza, Alexander; Vieyra, Hugo; Schäfer-Welsen, Olaf; Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Bartholome, Kilian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2019 Modelling cascaded caloric refrigeration systems that are based on thermal diodes or switches
Hess, Tobias; Maier, Lena Maria; Corhan, Patrick; Schäfer-Welsen, Olaf; Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Bartholome, Kilian
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Journal Article
2018 Towards high cycle frequencies for magnetocaloric cooling systems - a proof of principle
Maier, Lena Maria; Hess, Tobias; Schäfer-Welsen, O.; Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Bartholome, Kilian
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
2017 New concept for high-efficient cooling systems based on solid-state caloric materials as refrigerant
Bartholome, Kilian; Hess, Tobias; Winkler, Markus; Mahlke, Andreas; König, Jan D.
Konferenzbeitrag
Conference Paper
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